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论阿瑟.密勒《推销员之死》的悲剧观

时间:2017-10-02 其他毕业论文 我要投稿
毕业论文

Arthur Miller’s Views of Tragedy in Death of a Salesman

Abstract

    After his first Broadway production in 1944, Arthur Miller remained in the forefront of important American playwrights. Actually, upon the basis of classical tragedy and his understanding of modern society, Arthur Miller formed his own theory of tragedy.
    This thesis begins with an introduction which provides Arthur Miller’s achievement and expounds the success and critical problems of Death of a Salesman. Part One is concerned about the development of tragedy. It will be analysis from three periods. Each period has its own character and its own unique concept. Part Two is meant to probe into Miller’s ideas of tragedy. In Miller’s “The Tragedy and the Common Man” Miller has explained the necessity of common man as a hero of tragedy, saying that tragedy flaw not only belongs to noble man and tragedy is different from pathos. Part Three sets out to explore in Miller’s play his views of tragedy. Different from Greek or Elizabethan tragedy, Miller chose a common man Willy Loman as the hero. Willy had no money, no influential position. For Miller, another key element of a tragedy was the “tragic flaw” that the main character had. The tragic flaw of Willy was his worship of false value. He was so idolatrous that killed him. In Miller’s tragedies, the plays were optimistic and hopeful. It was terrible that Willy killed himself, but his reasons of suicide showed an optimistic view of the play. Also, it brought the audience much more hope and thought rather than pity and terror.

Key Words: Arthur Miller; views of tragedy; common man; tragic flaw; optimism

摘  要

自从密勒的第1个剧本于1944年在百老汇公演以来,他在此后的20年中在美国都是个举足轻重的剧作家。当然,他也不免遭受1些评论家的非议。有人说他的语言太缺乏震撼力,还说他对美国社会持着过于极端否定的态度,还有些人拒绝接受他把悲剧定义为小人物的悲剧。即使如此,他的声誉却1直经久不衰。以传统戏剧为基础,通过他对社会的深刻理解以及他自己的丰富经历,密勒形成了他自己独有的悲剧观念。
本文开头介绍了密勒所取得的成就并且分析了《推销员之死》的成功之处以及评论家们对这部剧作的1些批评性的观点。本文主体的第1部分纵览了悲剧的发展:悲剧经过了3个重要的发展时期,每个时期的悲剧都有他不同的特征。第2部分旨在分析密勒独特的悲剧观,他的悲剧观在“悲剧与普通人”中有明确的体现。他在这部作品中阐述了普通人作为悲剧主角的必然性;悲剧缺陷不仅仅只在有地位的人身上体现,同样也会存在于1个普通人身上;并且悲剧是不同于悲悯的。第3部分着重探索了密勒在《推销员之死》中的悲剧观。不同于传统的悲剧,密勒让1个普通人威利成为了悲剧的主角,并且这个主角有导致他最终走向失败的悲剧性缺陷,那便是他对错误价值观的盲目崇拜。密勒还认为悲剧中应该存在乐观,要使人受到启发、看到希望。
结语部分重述了密勒的悲剧观。阐述了他对现代悲剧发展的贡献。

关键词:阿瑟•密勒、悲剧观、普通人、悲剧缺陷、乐观

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