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论《玻璃动物园》中的逃遁情结

时间:2017-10-02 其他毕业论文 我要投稿
毕业论文

Abstract

The history of American culture is actually a constantly changing one of Puritanism. American thoughts and ideas have changed a lot since Puritanism pervaded in America in the 17th century. Many Americans, especially the “petty bourgeois”, bore a combination of emotion and impulses of escaping from the reality. It has been rejected from awareness but still influences their behaviors, that is, they pervasively had an escape complex.
The Glass Menagerie, written by Tennessee Williams in 1945, reflects this phenomenon perfectly. The play is set in the apartment of the Wingfield family, housing Amanda Wingfield and her two children Tom and Laura. The father left many years ago, and is now represented only by a picture on the living-room wall. Jim O’Connor, the gentleman caller, is an emissary from the reality. None of the characters, even Jim himself, is capable of living entirely in the actual world. Their souls are all occupied by the escape complex, but in different ways.
Amanda lives “vitally in her illusions” of a past age of jonquils and gentlemen callers; Laura sits in a dream world with her glass collection and old records; Tom seeks adventure in movies and poems’ writing; Jim basks in the praises of his high school glory and dreams of a wonderful future. In their respective ways, they demonstrate their restlessness and exhibit a state of delusion that originates from their dissatisfaction with their lives. Escape is the only way they have to relieve themselves from the pain of alienation and the pressure of the reality.

Key Words: Puritanism; escape complex; loneliness; alienation; pipe dream

摘   要

美国文化的历史实际上就是对清教主义再思考的1个演变的历史。自107世纪清教主义在美国盛行以来,美国人的思想观念发生了深刻的变化。他们内心深处普遍产生了1种逃遁情结,即1种极想逃避现实的情感倾向或冲动。
威廉斯(1911-1983)于1945年写成的戏剧《玻璃动物园》很好的反映了美国人的这种逃遁情结。该剧以温非尔德1家的寓所为背景。剧中主要人物有母亲阿曼达,她的两个孩子汤姆和罗拉,以及来访的绅士吉姆。丈夫温非尔德先生很早就离家出走,只有1张照片挂在起居室的墙上。所有的人满脑子里都是逃避的思想,都试图退避到自己的世界里,不敢面对残酷的生活现实。但他们的逃避方式又各不相同。阿曼达生活在对过去的水仙花和求婚者们接踵而至的鲜活幻想中;罗拉整天与1群玻璃动物待在1起,反复听着父亲留下来的唱片;汤姆在电影和诗歌的创作中寻找刺激,最后他步其父亲后尘,抛弃了可怜的母亲和妹妹,逃离了家乡;吉姆对中学时代的辉煌念念不忘,还整日做着自己的“美国梦”。总之,每个人都在以自己独特的方式展示出对现实的不满。逃避是他们把自己从异化的痛苦和现实的压力中解放出来的唯1途径。

关键词:清教主义;逃遁情结;孤独;异化;白日梦

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