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论西欧殖民扩张对世界地区联系的影响

时间:2017-10-02 其他毕业论文 我要投稿
毕业论文

Abstract

After Columbus discovered America in 1492, Spain and Portugal first established a colony overseas. But during the end of sixteenth century and the beginning of seventeenth century, the Netherlands, France, and Britain engaged in the colonial expansion. They not only replaced the superior position of Spain and Portugal, but also fought for maritime overlord. At last Britain won the victory. The western countries’ colonial expansion was the colonialist’s plundering process. According to these countries’ plundering and wringing every ounce of sweat and blood out of the colonial people, the capitalism of western European countries was forging rapidly ahead. Therefore these countries’ expansion accelerated the arrival of Industrial Revolution. At the same time the great majority of eastern countries closed the country to international intercourse. They satisfied with their present situation and didn’t make progress. So the western countries’ superior position was established. And the eastern countries were fall behind them. During this period, the relationship among different regions all over the world became closer. The economic communication among these regions was reinforced. The global balance was changed. And the world’s political relationship had a basically change. The communication of global culture was also closer than before. All of these changes laid a foundation for people to establish a closer world.

Key words: colonial expansion;seven Years’ War; superior position; world regions’ connection; economic communication;global balance; global culture
 


摘   要


通过对英法7年战争(1756—1763)的分析,我们清楚的认识到英法争夺殖民地战争的实质。殖民战争对世界的影响是巨大的。它给广大殖民地人民带来了巨大的灾难和苦痛。18世纪中期,西方世界的优势日趋形成,殖民扩张在客观上加强了世界各地区之间的联系。
首先,在经济方面:① 殖民战争导致了人口的重新分布。如白人渗入南非,美洲人种的巨大变化等。② 殖民战争促进了世界动植物的交流。③ 密切了世界地区间的经济联系,出现了全球性的经济关系。如“3角贸易”的繁荣。④ 国际分工的第1次大规模地实现。如美洲、东欧生产原料,非洲提供劳动力,亚洲提供奢侈品,而西欧指挥全球性的贸易集中工业生产。
其次,在政治方面:全球均势发生了较大的变化,全球的政治关系发生了基本变化,西欧列强崛起。
再次,在文化方面:①殖民战争密切了新大陆与英国本土文化的关系。②使不同的文化对待西欧文化有了不同的态度。③加速了欧洲文化与中国文化的交流。
因此,文章通过对经济、政治、文化等多方面的分析,认识到殖民战争在客观上加强了世界地区间的联系。这1观点能使人们更加全面的认识殖民扩张的结果,有助于人们更加深刻、系统的认识殖民战争对世界各地区的重大影响。

关键词:殖民扩张;7年战争;优势地位;世界地区联系;
经济交流;世界均势;全球文化

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