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背景知识对外语阅读理解的作用

时间:2017-10-02 其他毕业论文 我要投稿
毕业论文

Effect of background knowledge on foreign language reading comprehension
Abstract

In the past 20 years, the effects of the background knowledge have around general attention of linguistics. Comprehension is perceived to be an essential component in reading. This thesis first explains the theory of reading, for example, the bottom-up model, the top-down model, the interactive model and the schema theory, later on the basis of Carrell’s theory, illustrates the effects of background knowledge on the foreign language reading comprehension. In Carrell’s theory, there are three components in background knowledge: context, familiarity and transparency. Context in essence refers to any knowledge that the text is about a particular content area, just like a title, a picture, or a graph and so on, which could provide a hint as to the topic of the test is going to focus on. Familiarity is the background knowledge in the content area of the text, and transparency is prior knowledge that the structure of the text. This thesis makes more research about this three components and use the materials that come from Senior English for China Students Book 1A to comfirm them . All of this thesis try to do is in order to let the teachers make more attention to teach background knowledge to the students during teaching.
 
Key Words: background knowledge; reading comprehension; context; familiarity; transparency

摘  要

背景知识的作用在近210年引起了语言学家的广泛注意。理解被认为是在阅读中的最基本的要素。本文首先介绍了各种不同的阅读理论,如:“由上而下”模式、“由下而上”模式和“交互作用”模式以及图式理论,本文以卡罗尔的理论为主要理论根据来分析其在阅读理解中的作用。在其理论中卡罗尔认为背景知识有3个组成部分:上下文、熟悉度和透明度。上下文是指与文本有关的相关内容,如文章的标题和文章里面的1幅画等。这些相关的内容可以给读者提供1些启示,使读者更容易掌握文章内容。熟悉度指的是对文本内容的了解程度。透明度指的是对篇章结构的把握。本文分别详细地分析了这3个组成部分,并以选自高中课文中的课文为材料来加以例证。以求在教学过程中引起重视,并注重对学生背景知识的灌入。使学生能更好地理解材料。

关键词:背景知识、阅读理解、上下文、熟悉度、透明度                

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