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从“心”认知--转喻、隐喻与一词多义现象研究

时间:2017-10-02 其他毕业论文 我要投稿
毕业论文

A Cognitive Study on Polysemy with Metaphor and Metonymy Based
on the Word “Heart”
Abstract

Traditionally, polysemy refers to the phenomenon in which a word that has two or more different but related meanings; In modern cognitive linguistics, polysemy is the result of human cognitive categorization and conceptualization which regarded as a category in which distinct meanings distribute around a central or prototypical meaning. Traditionally, metonymy and metaphor are two figures of speech; In modern cognitive linguistics, they are two cognitive mechanism, which motivates semantic change and is the channel for meaning construction. This thesis is about the research on polysemy based on cognitive metonymy and metaphor by analysis of “Heart” both in English and in Chinese. There are four findings: 1) Metaphor plays a more important role than metonymy in the extension of word meaning; 2) There are two important ways of thinking in the extension of word meaning: metonymical thinking based on contiguity and metaphorical thinking based on similarity. Metonymy extends in chains, yet metaphor in radial. These two ways of thinking are like points on a continuum; 3) When the the word meaning in extension is further from the original meaning, it is more figurative; 4) Parts of cognition are the same for Chinese and English. The goal of which is to find the internal structure, semantic extension mechanism as well as the characteristics of polysemy through a case study of “heart” and help language learners get a better understanding of polysemy.

Key Words: polysemy; cognitive metonymy; cognitive metaphor;heart

摘 要

传统意义上,多义词是指1个单词具有两个或者两个以上相关意义的1种现象;在语言学中,多义词是人类认知的结果,其各义项意义分布在中心意义或者原型意义周围。同样地,在传统概念中,转喻和隐喻是两种修辞格;在现代语言学当中,他们被认为是两种认知机制,是词义延伸的主要原因。并且是词义延伸的两种主要方式。本文以英汉heart(心) 为语料, 从认知转喻和隐喻的思维角度分析1词多义现象。研究发现: (1) 隐喻在词义延伸中发挥的作用大于转喻; (2) 在词义延伸中有两种思维结构: 1是以邻近性关系为基础的“部分代整体”的转喻思维结构; 另1个是以事物相似性为基础的隐喻性联想思维结构。转喻呈连锁状延伸, 隐喻呈辐射状延伸。两种思维结构相互交叉, 出现连续统的现象; (3) 当词义从本义向转喻、隐喻方向延伸的时候,离本义越远, 修辞性就越强; (4) 英语和汉语在词义延伸过程中, 认知思维部分相同。这篇论文的目的在于通过HEART 1词的个案研究探讨多义词意义范畴的内部结构、拓展机制和意义构建的特点,从本质上解释多义现象的认知特征并且帮助语言学习者更好理解多义词。

关键词: 多义词、认知转喻、 认知隐喻、心

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