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野生葛根与栽培葛根药材性状显微组织差异比较研究

时间:2017-09-26 药学毕业论文 我要投稿

【摘要】   目的中药葛根栽培品与野生品药材性状显微组织差异比较。方法药材性状比对,根横切面、粉末显微特征测量和比对。结果葛根野生品与栽培品药材性状区别:野生葛根呈长圆柱形,直径1~6 cm,切面呈棕褐色,纤维性;栽培葛根呈长纺锤形,直径2~12 cm,显粉性。显微组织方面区别表现在:葛根野生品根横切面晶鞘纤维束众多,有多层切向排列的分泌道群,木质部导管粗大,排列密集,淀粉粒较少;栽培品晶鞘纤维束、分泌道群均较少,木质部导管排列稀疏,径向排列,淀粉粒众多。结论葛根栽培品与野生品在药材性状和显微组织上存在一定差异,外观性状的差异和根横切面晶鞘纤维束、导管和淀粉粒的多少和大小,可以做为两者的鉴别特征。

【关键词】 葛根; 栽培品; 野生品; 药材性状; 显微特征; 差异

Study on the Difference in Shapes, Properties and the Microscopic Frameworks of Wild and Cultivated Radix Puerariae

GE Xiao?guang, FENG Xue?feng, FU Gui?fang, LI Xiao?ming, WU Zhi?gang, SHAO Ai?juan, YANG Jing?yu, LIU Si?si

(Institute of Chinese Materia Medica , China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China)

Abstract:ObjectiveTo indicate the difference shapes, properties and the microscopic frameworks of wild and cultivated Radix Puerariae. MethodsComparing the shapes and properties , measuring and comparing the microscopic characters of transverse section and the powder and disintegrated tissue of roots. ResultsFor the shapes and properties, wild Radix Puerariae has long-column shape with the diameter of 1~6 cm and deep brown fibre section. Cultivated Radix Puerariae has long-spindle shape with diameter of 2~12 cm and light brown powder section. For the microscopic frameworks, the root transverse section of wild Radix Pueraria has much crystal fiber bundle with multilayer,the vessel of xylem is crassitude with dense ranks and a few starch grain, the root transverse section of the cultivated has a few crystal fiber bundle and a few groups of secretory tube, the vessel of xylem has radial ranks with much starch grain. ConclusionWild Radix Puerariae and cultivated Radix Puerariae have differences shapes and properties and the differences of microscopic frameworks. The main characteristics of them are the different shapes and properties and the different size of xylem vessel and different number of groups of secretory tube and starch grain.

Key words:Pueraria lobata (Willd.)Ohwi; Wild Radix Pueraria; Cultivated Radix Pueraria; Shapes and properties; Microscopic; Difference

中药葛根为豆科植物野葛Pueraria lobata (Willd.)Ohwi的根,具有解肌退热、生津、透疹、升阳止泻等功效[1]。野葛在我国大部分地区有分布,药材主要产于河南、安徽、湖南、湖北、浙江、陕西、四川、重庆等省市。野葛传统应用野生品为主,但随着葛根产品的开发应用,野生资源不足与采挖困难问题显现。近年来在安徽、江西、湖北等地有野葛栽培,安徽霍山野葛栽培品能少量投入市场。以往有关葛根生药学研究多是针对野生药材及其地方品种或粉葛的[2~4]!吨泄┑洹犯鸶┎谋曜际钦攵砸吧返,没有葛根栽培品药材标准。本文在对葛根药材资源和市场调查的基础上,采集和购买了大量葛根药材商品和实验样品,对野葛野生品与栽培品的药材性状、显微组织方面差异进行比较研究,以期为葛根野生品与栽培品的鉴别、制定葛根栽培品的药材标准提供科学的依据。

1 材料

实验样品采自5省区,实地采集和购买药材样品共19份(野生14份,栽培5份),栽培样品中收集了1年生、2年生和3年生样品,用于实验对照。所有样品经冯学锋鉴定均为豆科植物野葛Pueraria lobata (Willd.)Ohwi的根,凭证标本存中国中医科学院中药研究所标本馆(CMMI)。见表1。

2 方法

首先对实地采集样品(不同生长年限的和野生的)进行外观形状和显微镜观察,寻找鉴别特征和差异点,再观察大量市场药材样品,分析考察各性状显微特征的稳定性。通过观察和测量葛根药材的大小、颜色、形状等性状特征,对其栽培品与野生品性状特征进行比对。通过光学显微镜观察根横切片,粉末和解离组织制片,对葛根栽培品与野生品显微组织进行比对、显微特征测量和显微照相。

2.1 根横切片制备选取距葛根的根部,软化后,采用常规石蜡切片或徒手切片法制片。

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