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SCI论文写作技巧之数字篇

时间:2017-05-14 论文写作 我要投稿

  随心所欲写论文的境界是很难达到的,但是中规中矩还是可以的,那么SCI论文中有些什么小的规矩呢?今天先来讲讲SCI论文中涉及数字的时候需要注意点什么,希望对你有帮助。

  (温馨提示: 这里主要基于ACS style,其他出版社可能略有区别, 请千万注意)

  1. 除了%, $, 和角度单位o, ‘, “之外,使用其他量度或时间单位时,数字和单位之间必须有空格。

  错误用法:10mg, 错误原因:10和mg之间应该加上空格;

  20 %, 错误原因:20和%之间不能有空格。

  $ 250, 错误原因:$和250之间不能有空格。

  正确用法:10 mg, 100 mL, 30 mol, 20 mm, 10%, 30o15’33”,$250, 50 oC.

  2. 当没有特别技术含义(nontechnical sense)时,不需要采用数字加单位的形式,相反,应该将数字及单位拼写出来

  举例:If you take five minutes to read this article, you’ll be surprised.

  3. 除了时间和量度单位之外,其他物理量的表示方法如下:

  1) 基数小于10时,采用单词来表示数值;当基数大于等于10时,采用数字来表示;

  举例:three flasks 30 flasks

  seven trees 20 trees

  2) 序数小于10时,采用单词”first”到”ninth”来表示;序数大于等于10时,采用数字10th等来表示。

  举例:six fold 20-fold

  eighth example 33rd example

  first century 21st century

  3) 当一组数值中包含一个数字大于等于10时,所有数值都用数字表示。

  举例:5, 8 and 12 experiments 2nd and 20th samples

  4) 当一个句子的并列结构中包含多个数值时,如果其中一个数值大于等于10,所有数值都用数字来表示

  举例:Activity was reduced in 2 pairs, not significantly changed in 11 pairs,and increased in 6 pairs.

  5) 当一个非常大的数值没有特殊的技术性含义时,采用数字和单词组合的形式。

  举例:180 million people

  $15 million (not 15 million dollars)

  2 million pounds (not lb)

  4.数值的数字单位拼写

  1)当一个句子以具体数值开始时,将数字和单位都要拼写出来,

  举例:Twelve species were evaluated in this study.

  Twenty-five milliliters of acetone were added, and the mixture was centrifuged.

  但是如果有可能,尽量重新排布句子结构以避免用具体数值作为句子的开头;

  Acetone (25 mL) was added, and the mixture was centrifuged.

  A 25mL portion of acetone was added, and the mixture was centrifuged.

  2)只有开头数值的数字和单位拼写需要拼写出来,句子中其他位置的数值不需要拼写出来,应该采用正确的数字+单位形式

  举例:Twenty-five milliliters of acetone and 5 mL of HCl were added.

  Three micrograms of sample was dissolved in 20 mL of acid.

  5. 短语中具有数学含义(mathematical sense)的数值用数字来表示

  举例:The incidence of disease increased by a factor of 4.

  The yield of product was decreased by 6 orders of magnitude.

  The efficiency of the reaction was increased 2-fold.

  After 2 half-lives, the daughter product could be measured.

  The control group had 3 times the risk for coloncancer.

  The values are determined with 5 degrees of freedom.

  6. 当fold,times作为后缀的数值不具备特殊数学含义时,如果数值小于10,将该数字拼写出来

  举例:The purpose of this discussion is two fold.

  The beaker was rinsed four times.

  7. 比例中,必须采用数字

  举例:a ratio of 1:10; a ratio of 1/10; a 1:1 (v/v) mixture

  8.数字表示日期

  1)数字表示日期时,不要加序数词尾

  举例:January 3, Jan 3 (not January 3rd, Jan 3rd)

  September 5, Sept 5 (not September 5th, Sept 5th)

  2)通过数字表示十年时,直接在数字后面加s, 而不是's.

  举例:the 1960s (not the 1960's, not the'60s)

  values in the 90s (not the 90's)

  She is in her 20s. (not her 20's)

  3) a.m.和p.m. (注意写法)前用数字

  例如:12:00 p.m.

  9. 当分数中分子分母都小于10时,将分子分母都用单词拼写出来,并用 "-"连接起来; 如果有一项大于或者等于10,则采用数字分数形式

  举例:two-thirds of the results;one-quarter of the experiments

  ¹⁄₂₀ of the subjects; ¹⁄₁₂ of the volume.

  10. 用来表示并列句子和短语时,采用(1),(2), (3)而不是1), 2), 3).

  举例:Some advantages of these materials are (1) their electrical properties after pyrolysis, (2) their ability to be modified chemically before pyrolysis, and (3) their abundance and low cost.

  11. 当数值特别大时,应该采用科学计数法来避免超过四位数

  举例:1.2 × 106 s 3.0 × 104 kg

  5.8× 10–5 M or 58 µM 42.3 L (not 42,300 mL or 42 300 mL)

  在一些例外中,即便有的情况下有数字超过4位数也应该沿用。

  1)表格中,为了保证每一列的单位一致;

  2)使用约定俗成的单位;

  液体密度:g/L 固体密度:kg/m3

  弹性模量:GPa 液体压力:kPa 应力:MPa

  12. 不要采用E来表示10的指数

  举例:3.7× 105 (not 3.7e5, 3.7E+5)

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