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SCI论文写作攻略之构思与撰文

时间:2017-05-21 论文写作 我要投稿

  论文写作是展现科研学术成果一个重要途径,以下是小编为大家搜集整理的SCI论文写作方法指导,欢迎前来阅读参考。

  一、写作框架和各部分要求

  Title: Be short, accurate, and unambiguous; Give your paper a distinct personality; Begin with the subject of the study.

  Introduction: What is known; What is unknown; Why we did this study?

  Methods: Participants, subjects; Measurements; Outcomes and explanatory variables; Statistical methods.

  Results: Sample characteristics; Univariate analyses; Bivariate analyses; Multivariate analyses.

  Tables and figures: No more than six tables or figures; Use Table 1 for sample characteristics (no P values); Put most important findings in a figure.

  Discussion: State what you found; Outline the strengths and limitations of the study; Discuss the relevance to current literature; Outline your implications with a clear "So what?" and "Where now?"

  References: All citations must be accurate; Include only the most important, most rigorous, and most recent literature; Quote only published journal articles or books; Never quote "second hand"; Cite only 20-35 references.

  Formatting: Include the title, author, page numbers, etc. in headers and footers; Start each section on a new page; Format titles and subtitles consistently; Comply with "Instructions to authors".

  二、英文写作的语言技巧

  1. Introduction:

  A. 如何指出当前研究的不足并有目的地引导出自己研究的重要性?在叙述前人成果之后,用However来引导不足,提出一种新方法或新方向。 如:However, little information(little attention/little work/little data/little research……)(or few studies/few investigations/few researchers/few attempts……)(or no/none of these studies……)has(have)been done on(focused on/attempted to/conducted/investigated/studied(with respect to))。如:Previous research (studies, records) has (have) failed to consider/ ignored/ misinterpreted/ neglected to/overestimated, underestimated/misleaded. thus, these previus results are inconclisive, misleading, unsatisfactory, questionable, controversial. Uncertainties (discrepancies) still exist……研究方法和方向与前人一样时,可通过以下方式强调自己工作:However, data is still scarce(rare, less accurate)or there is still dearth of……We need to(aim to, have to) provide more documents(data, records, studies, increase the dataset). Further studies are still necessary(essential)……

  强调自己研究的重要性,一般还要在However之前介绍与自己研究问题相反或相关的问题。比如:(1)时间问题;(2)研究手段问题;(3)研究区域问 题;(4)不确定性;(5)提出自己的假设来验证。如果你研究的问题在时间上比较新,你可大量提及时间较老问题的研究及重要性,然后(However)表 明“对时间尺度比较新的问题研究不足”;如果你的是一种新的研究手段或研究方向,你可提出当前流行的方法及其物质性质,然后(However)说对你所研 究的方向方法研究甚少;如果研究涉及区域问题,就先总结相邻区域或其它区域的研究,然后(However)强调这一区域的研究不足;虽然前人对某一问题研 究很多,但目前有两种或更多种观点,这种uncertanties或ambiguities值得进一步澄清;如果自己的研究是全是新的,没有前人的工作可 对比,你就可以自信地说“根据假设提出的过程,存在这种可能的结果,本文就是要证实这种结果”等等。We aim to test the feasibility (reliability) of the……It is hoped that the question will be resolved (fall away) with our proposed method (approach).

  B. 提出自己的观点:We aim to//This paper reports on//This paper provides results//This paper extends the method//This paper focus on……The purpose of this paper is to……Furthermore, Moreover, In addition, we will also discuss……

  C. 圈定自己的研究范围:introduction的另一个作用就是告诉读者(包括reviewer),你文章的主要研究内容。如果处理不 好,reviewer会提出严厉的建议,比如你没有考虑某种可能性,某种研究手段等。为减少这种争论,在前言的结尾就必须明确提出本文研究的范围:(1) 时间尺度;(2) 研究区域等。如涉及较长的时序,你可明确提出本文只关心某一特定时间范围的问题,We preliminarily focus on the older (younger)……如有两种时间尺度 (long-term and short term),你可说两者都重要,但是本文只涉及其中一种。研究区域的问题,和时间问题一样,也需明确提出你只关心某一特定区域!

  D. 最后的原。涸谇把缘淖詈,还可以总结性地提出“这一研究对其它研究有什么帮助”;或者说further studies on……will be summarized in our next study (or elsewhere)。总之,其目的就是让读者把思路集中到你要讨论的问题上来。尽量减少不必要的争论(arguments)。

  2. Discussion:

  A. 怎样提出观点:在提出自己的观点时,采取什么样的策略很重要,不合适的句子通;嵩獾絩eviewer置疑。(1)如果观点不是这篇文章最新提出的,通常 要用We confirm that……(2)对于自己很自信的观点,可用We believe that……(3)通常,由数据推断出一定的结论,用Results indicate, infer, suggest, imply that……(4) 在极其特别时才可用We put forward(discover, observe)……"for the first time"来强调自己的创新……(5) 如果自己对所提出的观点不完全肯定,可用We tentatively put forward (interrprete this to…)Or The results may be due to (caused by) attributed to resulted from……Or This is probably a consequence of……It seems that……can account for (interpret) this……Or It is posible that it stem from……要注意这些结构要合理搭配。如果通篇是类型1)和5),那这篇文章的意义就大打折扣。如果全是2),肯定会遭到置疑。所以要仔细分析自己成果 的创新性以及可信度。

  B. 连接词与逻辑:写英文论文最常见的毛病是文章的逻辑不清楚,解决方法如下。

  (1)注意句子上下连贯,不能让句子独立。常见的连接词有,However, also, in addition, consequently, afterwards, moreover, Furthermore, further, although, unlike, in contrast, Similarly, Unfortunately, alternatively, parallel results, In order to, despite, For example, Compared with, other results, thus, therefore……用好连接词能使文章层次清楚,意思明确。比如,叙述有时间顺序的事件或文献,最早的文献可用AA advocated it for the first time.接下来可用Then BB further demonstrated that. 再接下来,可用Afterwards, CC……如果还有,可用More recent studies by DD……如果叙述两种观点,要把它们截然分开AA put forward that……In contrast, BB believe or Unlike AA, BB suggest or On the contrary (表明前面观点错误),如果只表明两种观点对立,用in contrast BB……如果两种观点相近,可用AA suggest……Similarily, alternatively, BB……Or Also, BB or BB allso does……表示因果或者前后关系可用Consequently, therefore, as a result……表明递进关系可用furthermore, further, moreover, in addition……写完一段英文,最好首先检查是否较好地应用了这些连接词。

  (2) 注意段落布局的整体逻辑:经常我们要叙述一个问题的几个方面。这种情况下,一定要注意逻辑结构。第一段要明确告诉读者你要讨论几个部 份……Therefore, there are three aspects of this problem have to be addressed. The first question involves……The second problem relates to……The third aspect deals with……清晰地把观点逐层叙述。也可以直接用First, Second, Third, Finally……当然,Furthermore, in addition等可以用来补充说明。

  (3) 讨论部份的整体结构:小标题是把问题分为几个片段的好方法。通常第一个片段指出文章最重要的数据或结果;补充说明部份放在最后一个片段。一定要明白,文章 的读者分为多个档次;除了本专业的专业人士读懂以外,一定要想办法能让更多的外专业人读懂。所以可以把讨论部份分为两部份,一部份提出观点,另一部份详细 介绍过程以及论述的依据。这样专业外的人士可以了解文章的主要观点,比较专业的讨论他可以把它当成黑箱子,而这一部份本专业人士可以进一步研究。

  C.讨论部分包括什么内容?(1)主要数据及其特征的总结;(2)主要结论及与前人观点的对比;(3) 本文的不足。对第三点,一般作者看来不可取,但事实上给出文章的不足恰恰是;ぷ约何恼碌闹匾侄。如果刻意隐藏文章的漏洞,觉得别人看不出来,是非常不 明智的。所谓不足,包括以下内容:(1)研究的问题有点片面,讨论时一定要说,It should be noted that this study has examined only……

  We concentrate (focus) on only……We have to point out that we do not……Some limitations of this study are……(2)结论有些不足,The results do not imply……The results can not be used to determine(or be taken as evidence of)……Unfortunately, we can not determine this from this data……Our results are lack of……但指出这些不足之后,一定要马上再次加强本文的重要性以及可能采取的手段来解决这些不足,为别人或者自己的下一步研究打下伏笔。Not withstanding its limitation, this study does suggest……

  However, these problems could be solved if we consider……Despite its preliminary character, this study can clearly indicate……用中文来说这是左右逢源,把审稿人想到的问题提前给一个交代,同时表明你已经在思考这些问题,但是由于文章长度,试验进度或者试验手 段的制约,暂时不能回答这些问题。但通过你的一些建议,这些问题在将来的研究中有可能实现。

  3. Others:

  A. 为使文章清楚,第一次提出概念时,最好以括弧给出较详细解释。如文章用了很多Abbreviation可用两种方法解决:(1) 在文章最后加上个Appendix,把所有Abbreviation列表;(2)在不同页面上不时地给出Abbreviation的含义,用来提醒读者。

  B. 绝对不能全面否定前人的成果,即使在你看来前人的结论完全不对。这是对前人工作最起码的尊重,英文叫做给别人的工作credits.所以文章不要出现非常 negative的评价,比如Their results are wrong, very questionable, have no commensence, etc.遇到这类情况,可以婉转地提出:Their studies may be more reasonable if they had……considered this situation.Their results could be better convinced if they……Or Their conclusion may remain some uncertanties.

  三、Writing Skills in English for Research Paper

  写paper注意九个环节:Preparation, Structure, Title, Abstracts, Introduction, Conclusion, Body of Paper, Recision, Acknowledgement。Preparation就是收集资料,找出灵感和方向,主要依靠的是journal in library。Structure是重点,paper的structure应该是两个triangle组成的:上面一个倒三角,下面一个正三角,意思就是选题要宽(wide),研究方向要窄,然后最后的conclusion又发散开来。在paper的body前后都必须有declarative statement,用最少的字句表达出自己的观点,吸引读者。

  Title必须清晰简短(clear,short),表达出自己唯一的topic以提升读者的兴趣(promote the interest of reader),然而title中切记不能出现abbreviation和自己的result。

  Abstracts是paper的一个缩写(miniature of whole paper),一定要简明扼要(less than 200 words,one paragraph),按照paper的顺序介绍主要研究对象(subject)、实验设计(design)、实验步骤(procedures)以及最后结果(results),这种介绍必须让非专业的人员能够(non-specialist)看懂。

  Introduction同样要保证简短,顺序是一般背景介绍、别人工作成果、自己的研究目的及工作简介,其中介绍别人工作时只需介绍和自己最相关的方面(very relevant),而对自己的工作介绍不用说明细节,因为这个要放到body中去。不要忘记在介绍自己工作之前要有一个declarative statement。

  Body部分可以分为methods、result和discussiong三个部 分:①Methods,详尽的介绍自己的实验方案以便于他人能够重复自己的实验过程,对于通用的实验方案可以简略,重点要放到自己的独创方案上面(own procedures),按照实验的先后顺序介绍,为了文章的阅读方便,不要使用过多层次的subheadings,比如 subsubsubsection等等。②Result,使用text、table、figure等手段表达出来,其中table不要使用过多,而 figure必须保证图线清楚、注解明确,必要的时候还要对于自己的result中的一些结论进行解释说明。③Discussion,这个部分是为了以后 的study,在其中提出自己的problem或者是hypothesis,和别人的成果进行比较,暗示自己的主要收获,为后面的conclusion做 准备。

  Conclusion中不要包含body以外的information,保持brief、neat和 concise,一定要舍得结束自己的paper;如果自己的paper只是project的一部分,稍做说明。Revison是在写完之后回头看看是否 有逻辑上的错误,是否考虑到了读者兴趣,自己的declarative statement是否令人满意,Brevity is the soul of literary construction。Acknowledgement,不要忘记,这个反应了一个人的个人品质。

  四、How to Write an Article by Gill B

  We very much welcome articles written by forumers, whether historical, strategic or about castles. Hopefully you will find a few hints and a bit of advice here which will help.

  1. Before you do anything at all, check that nobody is already writing a similar article. You don't want to spend a long time on research and writing only to find that someone else has already written about the same thing. Probably, for simplicity, you should mail your idea to me and I can check with the right person.

  2. It helps if you can write in clear and correct English. However, if English isn't your first language, don't let this put you off. I am happy to edit/proof read/anglicise what you have written.

  3. Look at previous articles on the site to see the sort of thing we like. Historical articles need to be factual, but not too dry. Strategy/design articles need to be accurate. Both need to be about something not already covered on the site.

  4. Your article needs to be original. You will need to do a lot of research on the web and/or in books. Of course you can use the information you find, but it will need to be rewritten in your own words. If you are using the internet for your research, try to find at least two sites confirming the information as there are some very inaccurate websites out there - we don't want to be one of them.

  5. If at all possible you will need illustrations for your article.

  a) If they are your own photos, drawings or screenshots, that's great.

  b) If you need an image of a unit, commodity or building from the game, there's a good chance we will already have an image uploaded somewhere.

  c)If you want to use an image from another website, you will have to write and ask permission. Do this politely; explain about the article you are writing, tell them that there will be a link to their site and send them a link to Stronghold Heaven so that they can see where their images will be used. If you are lucky, they will reply straight away giving you permission. More likely they will not reply at all, in which case you will need to look elsewhere. Please note that, for these purposes, HeavenGames is considered a commercial site (because we make a little money on the adverts, not a lot, but it's the idea that counts). This means a lot of pics that are in 'public' domain, will not be available to us, as they are for non-commerical use only. Permission to use external images is mandatory and we may need to see it before your article can be uploaded. We do have blanket permission to use images from some Castle Sites as long as they are credited, which might help you in your search.

  6. The final bit.

  a) When you have written your article and are happy with it, send it to me, preferably as a .txt file (though a .doc file is OK), together with any images you want to use. If the images are external, let me have the url where they can be found. Indicate in the article where you want each image to be.

  b) I (or another angel) will edit it and query with you anything we don't understand, then we will code and upload the article and you will be sent the url so you can have a look and see if you are happy with it.

  c) If not, we'll work on getting it how you want it; if so, it will be newsed and linked in to its appropriate place.

  五、撰写论文初稿(writing the first draft):

  (1)材料和方法(methods and materials):做了什么和怎样做?材料和方法是文章开始写作的最理想部分,这部分的内容作者最了解。写作要求:用过去时,尽可能按实验的先后顺序描述。

  (2)结果(results):发生了什么?基本写作要求:可用图、表或文字表达,三者间尽量减少重复。在正文部分叙述主要结果和意义,用图或表给出较详细的数据,用过去时。

  (3)讨论(discussion):所得结果是否为“前言”提出的关键问题的答案?结果是如何支持答 案的、如何证实假说的?基本写作要求:集中讨论与本结果有关的问题,突出本研究的创新及重要性,;与相关研究结果进行比较分析;给出结果所支持的结论;指 出前景、不足和改进。用现在时叙述已知或被证明的事实,用过去时描述本研究结果。

  (4)文献(references):与本研究方法、结果、讨论有关的其它研究有哪些?准确完整规范著录。

  (5)前言(introduction)本研究的背景和目的是什么?试图回答的关键问题是什么?基本写作要求:本研究之目的和重要性;简要复习文献。

  (6)致谢(acknowledgment):除了作者,谁协助完成了本研究、分析结果并撰写论文?谁提供了基金和物质帮助?写作要求:仅列出对本工作提供特殊的实质性贡献者姓名;须得到被致谢者同意。

  (7)摘要(abstract):论文告诉我们什么(通常<250字)?摘要是论文要点的浓缩, 应在文章各主要部分完成后再写,这样有利于文章要点的提炼。优秀的摘要能有效抓住读者兴趣。写作要求:用含有必要词汇的短的简单句,以使摘要清楚而简洁? 避免使用缩写词和晦涩难懂的词句;用小标题叙述研究论文的各部分;用过去时(但问题的陈述和结论可用现在时);强调研究的创新和重要方面。

  (8)文题(title):本文关于什么?最佳文题的标准是用最少的必要术语准确描述论文的内容。写作要求:准确(accuracy)、简洁(brevity)、有效(effectiveness)和吸引人。

  (9)作者(author list):谁参与了本研究的设计、工作及论文的撰写?

  (10)准备论文最后一稿(preparing the final manuscript):论文初稿完成以后,必须对内容及格式进行反复推敲和修改,达到“投稿须知”的一切要求。绝大多数有经验的编辑都认为:不认真准备的稿件绝不是高水平科学研究成果的良好载体(A poorly prepared manuscript is,almost without fail,the carrier vehicle of poor science. Day AR.)。如果希望论文发表,在准备投稿时必须做到打字整洁、无错、符合期刊格式、含有期刊要求的所有材料。该过程一般分三步:再次阅读拟投期刊的“投稿须知”;用“投稿须知”中提供的“稿件对照检查表”(manuscript checklist, author's checklist)与自己论文一一核对;根据期刊要求打印输出,完成最后一稿。

  六、英语学术论文写作的几个细节

  A. 时态:当提到本文、此图、此表等说明了、表达了什么时要用一般现在时,而不用一般过去时。This paper describes ……The focus of this paper is ……Figure 1 shows ……Most of the common condensation polymers are listed in Table 1-1.

  B. 数:在学术论文里,有时很难顾及数的逻辑。但一般不将逻辑上的问题视为语法错误。只须注意在一个句子中的数和谓语动词的统一即可。单、复数的选用有一些非定性、但可供参考的趋向:

  ◆◆当含意上强调复数时建议用复数。The catalyst concentrations for the different reactions are different.Our research focuses on the syntheses and characterizations of a series of polycarbonates with different chemical structures.The physical and chemical properties of this compound have been studied.The chain lengths of the oligomers with different molecular weights are different.

  ◆◆当含意上不强调复数时可用单数或复数。Our research focuses on the synthesis of polycarbonates.The property of the compounds in group 1 is different from the property of the compounds in group 2.The chain length of the oligomers increases with increasing reaction time.

  ◆◆在标题、小标题中或描述一类事物、现象等,提到具体物质时常用复数!綪olyesters】Polymers are macromolecules built up by large numbers of small molecules. The small molecules which combine with each other to form polymer molecules are termed monomers.在标题、小标题或描述一类事物、现象等,提到抽象概念时可用单数、也可用复数!維tep Copolymerization】Newer Types of Step Polymerizations. This chapter will consider the characteristics of step polymerization in detail.

  ◆◆学术论文、有关学术的科普文章中的名词的可数或不可数特性的划分区别于非学术文章《非学术文章中的可数或不可数特性可从字典查到》。以下是在学术文章中通常视为可数名词的单词:《但在一般字典中它们或它们做某种含义解时可能被划归不可数名词》。

  application development consideration

  composition concentration distribution

  structure length weight

  ◆◆当同时提及几个图、表、方程式时要用复数(分别单个地提及则不用):The reaction rate constant can be calculated from Equations 2 and 3. The reaction rate constant can be calculated from Equation 2 and Equation 3. Figs. 4 and 5 show ……

  C. 冠词:

  ◆◆单数名词前一般要加冠词:a , the等; 但以下情况可不加:表示不特指的、较抽象的概念:

  This chapter will consider the characteristics of step polymerization in detail. An understanding of the relative ease of cyclization or linear polymerization comes from a variety of sources.Different polymers are synthesized to yield various mechanical behaviors by the appropriate combinations of crystallinity, crosslinking, Tg, and Tm..但需注意这些单词前加冠词也是经常见到的,这是由它在句中的含义决定的(如有一定的特指意义):Polyisoprene is a typical elastomer – it is amorphous, easily crossed, has a low Tg (-73°C) and a high Tm (14°C).

  ◆◆目录、标题中通常省略冠词:

  1 Introduction

  1-1 Types of Polymers and Polymerizations

  …

  1-4 Molecular Weight

  1-5 Physical State

  图、表的题目中有时可省略冠词:Fig. 2-2 Second order plot of the self-catalyzed polyesterification of adipic acid with diethylene glycol at 166 °C.……Fig. 8 Dependence of the ease of cyclization on the size of the ring.化学药品、化学物质前通常不加冠词:The polymerization is catalyzed by protonic or lewis acids although a wide variety of base catalysts such as calcium acetate and antimony trioxide can also be used.图中的横、纵坐标的名称前不加冠词。

  D. 大小写:请注意以下结构的大、小写:当提及具体第几章、节;图、表;方程式时,首个字母通常要大写。As discussed in Chapter 2, ……In Section 1.2, we ……As shown in Figure 1, ……The results are listed in Table 3.当不指明是第几章、节;图、表;方程式时,首个字母如在句中通常用小写。In the previous chapter, ……As shown in this figure, ……

  E. 缩写:以下全名和缩写在文中通常视为同等,可以互换。

  Figure Fig. Figures Figs.

  Table Tab.

  Chapter Chap.

  Section Sec.

  Equation Eq. Equations Eqs.

  F. 一些常用词汇用法

  ◆◆research, study, investigate:research可做名词、动词,但通常做名词用,很少见到动词的用法。句中需要动词时常用study或investigate来表达。

  ◆◆detail/detailed:The properties of this compound were studied in detail.//The detailed properties of this compound were studied.//The details of the properties of this compound were studied.

  ◆◆follows/following:The results are as follows: ……//We got following results: ……

  ◆◆increase, decrease:均可做名词和动词,We can observe an increase in the reaction rate.//The reaction rate increases.

  ◆◆focus, concentrate:focus: n. , v. The focus of this paper is ……This paper focuses on ……Our study focuses on ……We focus our study on ……Our study is focused on ……concentrate: v. We concentrate our study on ……Our study is concentrated on ……

  ◆◆effect, affect:effect: n. //affect: v.

  ◆◆compose, consist:A is composed of B and C.//A consists of B and C.

  ◆◆increase, improve:increase: 主要指数值上的增加。improve: 主要指性质的增加、改善。

  G. 名词修饰:在学术文章中,很多时候会用到直接用名词做修饰,而不用’s 或 …… of …… 的形式。常见的这类词有:reaction rate;reaction rate constant;reaction temperature;reaction condition

  molecular weight distribution……

  H. 分词修饰:the reaction we studied;the temperature used;the nonlinearity observed。所有格:非人的所有格用……of……, 而不用……’s 。

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